Investigation of periodontal disease development and Porphyromonas gulae FimA genotype distribution in small dogs


In this study, the periodontal status and age-stratified FimA genotype distribution were clinically evaluated in 665 small dogs. Results showed that periodontal disease and FimA genotype distribution increased with age.For most FimA genotype distribution patterns, dogs with this pattern had worse periodontal status than dogs with a negative pattern P. Appetite. Furthermore, periodontal severity, FimA genotype distribution, and their associations differ among dog breeds.

Our evaluations of periodontal tissue condition based on the method described by Araújo et al., (2019) revealed that < 5% of dogs had the lowest periodontal severity score of 1 (no significant findings), and > 95% of dogs had some periodontal disease11. Interestingly, all dogs under 1 year old received a score of 1, with a score of 2 (mild periodontal disease) appearing at 1 year of age, a score of 3 (moderate periodontal disease) appearing at 2 years of age, and a score of 4 ( Severe periodontal disease) appears by age 2 years. Dogs of all ages above 3 years old received a score of 4. Age-related increases in periodontal severity scores occurred primarily under 6 years of age, with mean periodontal severity scores <2.5 for all age groups 0 to 5 years of age, and ≥2.5 for all age groups over 6 years of age. . These results indicate that periodontal disease progresses as early as 6 years of age in small dogs. It is important to note that a small number of older dogs (over 10 years old) have a periodontal disease severity score of 1.

In recent years, researchers have focused on the timing of the establishment of the bacteria that make up human oral biofilms.12. Dysbiosis of the human oral microbiota is detrimental to health and leads to periodontal disease. A recent study of 225 small dogs showed that the severity of periodontal disease during the first 50 months of life varies depending on the dog's genotype. P. Appetite FimA in the oral cavity10. This study classified dogs into only three FimA genotypes: A, B, and C; however, the actual distribution of FimA genotypes in the dog oral cavity was divided into seven types (A, B, C, A/B, A/C , B/C, A/B/C). Additionally, previous studies have roughly divided dogs into three age groups (under 50 months, 50-100 months, and over 100 months).Therefore, we aimed to determine the stabilization time of each FimA genotype distribution P. Appetite Oral studies were conducted using a large number of small dog subjects (n = 665).As a result, the rate is P. Appetite-negative dogs and dogs with any FimA genotype distribution trended with increasing age.This result means the quantity P. Appetite– Negative dogs decrease with age and are difficult to eliminate once P. Appetite Any one of the FimA genotypes is established in the oral cavity.

Regardless of the number of FimA genotypes detected in the oral cavity, dogs with FimA genotypes A, B, or C P. Appetite Periodontal severity scores were significantly higher in dogs with P. Appetite-Negative, consistent with previous studies10. In the present study, we also analyzed the number of FimA genotypes and we found that all dogs with 1 to 3 FimA genotypes had significantly higher periodontal severity scores than dogs with negative FimA genotypes. P. Appetite.This result shows P. Appetite Colonization was associated with periodontal severity score regardless of the number of FimA genotypes.More specifically, when only one FimA genotype was detected, types B and C were significantly associated with high periodontal severity scores, which correlated with previous in vitro studies8. Furthermore, all three FimA genotypes A, B, and C examined showed the highest periodontal severity scores.These results indicate that highly pathogenic P. Appetite A single FimA genotype has a greater impact on periodontal status, while the impact of multiple genotypes is more significant.

The three most popular small dog breeds in this study were toy poodles, dachshunds and chihuahuas, which is consistent with previous research13. Differences in periodontal disease severity and FimA genotype distribution were observed among the three dog breeds. For example, P. Appetite– Negative dogs are about twice as common in Chihuahuas as in Toy Poodles and Dachshunds, and Chihuahuas may be a relatively immune breed P. Appetite Infect. Furthermore, although dachshunds had the highest periodontal disease severity scores among the three dog breeds, FimA genotype distribution was not associated with periodontal disease severity scores. It follows that the periodontal condition of the Dachshund may be significantly affected by factors other than: P. Appetite Infect. Our study shows that different dog breeds differ in periodontal disease severity and FimA genotype distribution, and the differences in periodontal disease severity and FimA genotype distribution among different breeds should be elucidated in more detail.

This study included a random sample of small dogs visiting Japanese veterinary clinics in a specific area.However, it has recently become clear that human subjects with specific systemic conditions due to disease or congenital anomalies develop unique oral flora14,15.In addition, oral conditions vary widely between countries with different economic conditions16,17. Therefore, future studies of small dogs may need to focus in more detail on those dogs with systemic disease and congenital anomalies, as well as those bred in different countries and regions.

Our previous human clinical studies assessed the presence and amount of dental plaque18. In this study, we assessed the presence and amount of plaque using a plaque disclosing agent. Nonetheless, plaque disclosing agents are generally not used in clinical practice with small dogs. In addition, because small dogs are unlikely to be able to remove plaque through daily oral cleaning like humans, we did not assess the presence and amount of plaque.

In conclusion, our results indicate that periodontal disease in small dogs develops gradually from birth and that chronic periodontal disease develops over several years. also, P. Appetite Bacteria with various FimA genotypes colonize the oral cavity within several years of life.dog positive P. Appetite Have more severe periodontal disease than negative dogs P. Appetite, especially dogs with specific FimA genotypes (eg B, C, A/B/C). In addition, periodontal disease severity and FimA genotype distribution differ among major dog breeds.To prevent periodontal disease in small dogs, we recommend that it is important to prevent oral infections with the highly pathogenic FimA P. Appetite Identification of FimA genotypes is effective in determining periodontal disease risk.



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